Defence line of Amsterdam
The Defense line of Amsterdam is the former defense line built around Amsterdam. The length is 135 kilometres and consists of 42 forts. The defence line was built between 1880 and 1914 at a distance of ± 20 kilometres around Amsterdam. The area outside the Line was flooded in times of danger. The Defence Line of Amsterdam was included in the Unesco World Heritage List in 1996.
THE BEEMSTER POLDER
De Beemster is a good example of drained land. This land used to be a lake in the 17th century. The draining has been set up to drain the water away, and to turn this area into fertile farmland. A dike was built around the lake and 43 windmills then emptied the lake. De Beemster fell dry in 1612. Droogmakerij de Beemster has been included in the Unesco World Heritage List since 1999.
The Afsluitdijk is the flood defense between the provinces of North Holland and Friesland. The dike closes off the IJsselmeer from the Wadden Sea. The Afsluitdijk is very important in protecting against floods. The construction of the Afsluitdijk took 5 years. Work was started on both sides and was closed in 1932 the centre (De Vlieter). On the spot where the Afsluitdijk was closed, a monument was erected: the Vlietermonument.
The Wadden Sea
The Wadden Sea stretches over ± 10,000 km2 of sea, originated during the ice age. After the disappearance of the ice, the Wadden Sea was filled with water. This sea is a unique habitat for more than 10,000 rare plants and animal species and is an indispensable stopover for millions of birds during their treks. The Dutch part of the Wadden Sea was included in the Unesco World Heritage List in 2009.
Allingawier is a beautiful, authentic Frisian village located in the peat meadow area of the Amsterdam Lake District. The proximity of the sea in this area was both a source of income and a threat to the land and cattle. This picturesque village is a museum nowadays. Time stood still but ancient village stories come to life.
The city of Hindeloopen received city rights in 1225 and counts nowadays fewer than 1000 inhabitants. The city was an important trading town for a long time. The great blooming period was between 1650 and 1790, when the city owned a large fleet of over 80 ships. The capitalist look alike captains houses, from the 17th and 18th century, still show how rich the Hindeloopers were. Nowadays, Hindeloopen is famous for its traditional costumes, painting and countless national monuments.
Ir. D.F. Woudagemaal
The Woudagemaal is the largest working steam pumping station in the world. The pumping station was opened in 1920 and has the task of pumping excessing water from Friesland into the IJsselmeer. Nowadays, the tasks of the steam pumping station are taken over by an electric pumping station, but at extremely high water the historic pumping station can be used to pump away the excessive water as quickly as possible.
For centuries, Schokland was an island in the Zuiderzee. More than 10,000 years ago people already lived there. Living on the island was dangerous. The waves regularly hit entire pieces of land away and there was a constant risk of flooding. That is why the island was evacuated in 1859. Since the draining of the Noordoostpolder in 1942, the island of Schokland is part of the mainland. On the island itself there is a rich history, archaeological as well. Schokland was included in the Unesco World Heritage List in 1995.